Know About Water Bed: an Introduction to Water Bed

An Introduction to water bed

Lake Ptolemy is a former lake in Sudan. This lake formed during the Holocene in the Darfur region, during a time when the monsoon over Africa was stronger. The existence of the lake is dated between about 9,1002,400 years before present. This lake could have reached a surface area of 30,750 square kilometres (11,870sqmi), larger than present-day Lake Erie, although estimates of its size vary and it might have been much smaller. The shorelines in some places, insofar as they are recognizable, feature riparian landscapes and reeds. The lake was a freshwater lake replenished by groundwater and runoff from neighbouring mountains and might itself have been the source for the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System. The lake featured a diverse ecosystem with a number of species, and possibly facilitated the spread of species between the Nile and Lake Chad.

Lake chronology of water bed

The lake basin was probably formed before the Holocene by wind-driven erosion (Pachur & Altmann 2006:294). During the Pleistocene, a "Lake Sidiq" formed in the area of northern Lake Ptolemy. It has been dated at 21,600 600 years before present (Pachur & Altmann 2006:223,224), while no lake deposits are found dating back to the late Pleistocene; climate at that point was as dry as the present day (Pachur & Altmann 2006:227, 228).

Lake Ptolemy existed as a freshwater lake already around 9,180 185 years before present (Pachur & Altmann 2006:209). A temporary low water level is dated to 7,470 100 and 8,100 80 years before present. This lowstand was associated with strong trophic growth (Pachur & Altmann 2006:210); lowstands in the lake levels allowed land animals to reach the interior of the lake basin (Pachur & Altmann 2006:228). Radiocarbon dating of chalks in a wadi that entered the lake from the north has yielded ages for a highstand of 6,680 135 and 6,810 70 years before present (Pachur & Altmann 2006:208). Other dates from the northern reaches are 7,900 6,400 years before present, and 9,250 3,800 years before present (Pachur & Altmann 2006:209). Dates obtained from fish fossils in the northern reaches are 2,360 65 and 3,285 70 years before present, during times where lake levels were less stable (Pachur & Altmann 2006:208). No actual drying events are preserved in the fossil data (Pachur & Altmann 2006:468).

Wadis flowing into the lake were transporting water as late as 3,300 2,900 and 3,300 2,400 years before present on the southern and northern side, respectively. During its drying, the lake split into separate pools (Pachur & Altmann 2006:210). Deflation has removed the youngest deposits, thus the exact time when the lake disappeared is not known (Pachur & Altmann 2006:228). Today wind-driven erosion is the dominant process in the area; the northeasterly trade winds have formed sand deposits including barchans on the southwestern side of the former lake (Pachur 1997:231).

Biology of water bed

Lake Ptolemy featured a diverse ecosystem (Pachur & Altmann 2006:218), especially in its southwestern sector where tributaries formed river deltas with diverse environments; these include banks, reed beds, shallow lakes and swamps (Pachur 1997:234). Plant species documented from Lake Ptolemy include Acacia and Tamarix species, as well as Balanitos aegyptiaca and Capparis decidua (Pachur & Altmann 2006:206). The various water systems aided in the propagation of plants (Pachur & Altmann 2006:224). Reed vegetation formed on the southern and western shores of the lake (Pachur & Altmann 2006:212), and probably extended over its entire perimeter and sometimes into open water (Pachur 1997:229). The existence of Typha suggests that shallow lake phases occurred (Pachur & Altmann 2006:207). Microbialites (Pachur 1997:236) and stromatolites also formed on the lake shores and together with limnites are used to delimit the lake surface (Pachur & Altmann 2006:220).

Ostracods found in the lake include Candonopsis, Cyprideis, Cypridopsis, Cyprilla, Darwinula, Herpetocypris and Limnocytherae (Pachur & Altmann 2006:465). In some places, diatoms were widespread enough to form diatomite deposits (Pachur 1997:235).

About 10-18 fish species existed in Lake Ptolemy (Pachur 1997:229, Pachur & Altmann 2006:36), such as Clarias lazera, Lates niloticus and Synodontis (Pachur & Altmann 2006:207). Likewise, fossils of land tortoises (Pachur 1997:229), water tortoises and hippopotamus were found on the area of the former lake. The existence of marsh animals in the region was already reported in the map of 1858 (Pachur & Altmann 2006:205). Further animals documented in fossils include the Nile crocodile and pelomedusidae and trionychidae species (Pachur & Altmann 2006:206). Bees, molluscs and worms were active in the lake sediments, while alcelaphinae, elephants, giraffes (Pachur 1997:229), other ungulates (Pachur & Altmann 2006:228) as well as other animals (Pachur 1997:230) such as cane rats lived around the lake (Pachur & Altmann 2006:228).

The south shore of Lake Ptolemy could have been inhabited by neolithic pastoralists (Pachur & Altmann 2006:44). In addition, many human artifacts have been found in the region surrounding the former lake (Pachur & Altmann 2006:231), some of which may have had religious-spiritual significance (Pachur 1997:234).

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An Introduction to water bedShakespeare's Will is a play by Canadian writer Vern Thiessen. It was commissioned by Geoffrey Brumlik, then Artistic Director of the River City Shakespeare Festival in Edmonton as a performance vehicle for Jan Alexandra Smith and premiered at the Citadel Theatre in February 2005. It has been regularly revived and was performed at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in 2011. Shakespeare's Will was published in 2002 by Playwrights Canada Press.The American premiere of Shakespeare's Will was produced at Theatre 40 in Beverly Hills, California. The production starred Jeanmarie Simpson, was produced by Leonard Nimoy and directed by Susan Bay. Nimoy said he agreed to produce the show because 'It's a very beautiful piece, very beautifully written, very moving, and funny." The production led to a long-term creative collaboration between Nimoy and Thiessen which later included a specially commissioned play.Shakespeare's Will is a one-woman monodrama that focuses on Anne Hathaway on the day of her husband William Shakespeare's funeral. Its form has been described as a "poetic monologue that is fragmentary, and richly allusive." The audience shares details of her historically-unknown personal life, a mixture of general information about the lives of women in Elizabethan England, fictional dramatic twists, and twenty-first century interpretations.Interpretation of water bedScholar Anne Wilson interprets the play as an exploration of recent debate in Canada about non-traditional marriages and relationships, writing that 'the play's politics and key adaptive gestures coincide with transformations in Canada around orthodoxies associated with gender roles and families'. Wilson also notes Thiessen's exploration of the relationship between sexual freedom and patriarchal norms of male succession. She draws attention to the repeated emphasis on imagery of the sea, flow, and voyages to express the fluid nature of desire and human intimacies.Reviewer James Wenley praised the show as 'catnip for Shakespeare fans', writing that Anne emerges from the play a vivid and humanized character. He found Theissen's speculation of the Shakespeare marriage fascinating, believable, and delivering 'a very palpable sense of the time and place'.Conversely, reviewer John Coulbourn believed that "not much of it rings true, either to the heart or to the period of the piece", considering that Anne's musings were too generic to convince.J. Kelly Nestruck objected to the "anachronistic proto-feminist" portrayal of Hathaway, arguing that "there's no getting away from the fact that Shakespeare's Will is ultimately a drama once removed. Hathaway is of interest only because of whom she married."Critic Katherine Scheil says that the play 'recasts the poet's domestic life into a familiar narrative for a twenty-first-century audience, a sort of inspirational 'Chicken Soup for the Lonely Married Woman' based on the Shakespeare marriage', setting up Shakespeare as a 'vengeful husband' who fails to appreciate the sacrifices his wife made. However, she notes in conclusion that audiences seem receptive to a play about a stay-at-home mother's inspirational struggle and triumph, despite its unflattering rendition of the man himself.The play has been produced across Canada, Wales, England, Hong Kong, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States.Synopsis of water bedThe drama focuses on the will handed to William Shakespeare's widow Anne as she leaves his funeral. She is surprised by its existence and that his sister Joan should give it to her with a noticeably odd smile. Joan promises to visit in an hour.Anne resists reading the will, remembering instead the passion and the vows she shared with her husband, Catholic in public but 'their own kind of marriage' in private. These unusual vows accommodated their desires as individuals, but left Anne alone in Stratford to raise their three children. She relives the decision points where Bill's London life became a separate existence. When plague sweeps the country, she must find a way to protect the children without news or support from William and relates her decision to take them to the seashore, far from disease and death. Her flight repeats her own childhood journey, when her father brought her and her siblings to the sea and away from the plague which killed her mother.An hour later, Anne must read the will. She appreciates Bill's intention to secure the honours he has earned through his daughter's possible sons. She understands his bequests until she reads his provision for the house. Her loathed sister-in-law will inherit her prized house, while she is deeded the second best bed. The order of William's estate can only be punishment for their son's death from drowning. He has broken their pact. Anne's rage at his post-mortem betrayal, after she honourably maintained her side of their vows, gives her the strength to break free from the constraints of her situation as well. She decides to return to the sea to make a life for herself.The play shows us William's success in London through a domestic lens, where Anne's children, garden, bees and marketing are our focus. Anne's own childhood journey to the sea supplies a pattern of water-based imagery which resolves in the final sequence of the play; it is a mirror and cyclic resolution to Bill's love affair with words.
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