Knowledge About Examination Table,Algorithm of Examination Table

Algorithm of examination table

To encrypt a message, one would follow these steps:

Split the payload message into digraphs. (HELLO WORLD becomes HE LL OW OR LD)

Find the first letter in the digraph in the upper-left plaintext matrix.a b c d e E X A M P

f g h i j L B C D F

k l m n o G H I J K

p r s t u N O R S T

v w x y z U V W Y Z

K E Y W O a b c d e

R D A B C f g h i j

F G H I J k l m n o

L M N P S p r s t u

T U V X Z v w x y z

Find the second letter in the digraph in the lower-right plaintext matrix.a b c d e E X A M P

f g h i j L B C D F

k l m n o G H I J K

p r s t u N O R S T

v w x y z U V W Y Z

K E Y W O a b c d e

R D A B C f g h i j

F G H I J k l m n o

L M N P S p r s t u

T U V X Z v w x y z

The first letter of the encrypted digraph is in the same row as the first plaintext letter and the same column as the second plaintext letter. It is therefore in the upper-right ciphertext matrix.a b c d e E X A M P

f g h i j L B C D F

k l m n o G H I J K

p r s t u N O R S T

v w x y z U V W Y Z

K E Y W O a b c d e

R D A B C f g h i j

F G H I J k l m n o

L M N P S p r s t u

T U V X Z v w x y z

The second letter of the encrypted digraph is in the same row as the second plaintext letter and the same column as the first plaintext letter. It is therefore in the lower-left ciphertext matrix.a b c d e E X A M P

f g h i j L B C D F

k l m n o G H I J K

p r s t u N O R S T

v w x y z U V W Y Z

K E Y W O a b c d e

R D A B C f g h i j

F G H I J k l m n o

L M N P S p r s t u

T U V X Z v w x y z

Using the four-square example given above, we can encrypt the following plaintext:

Plaintext: he lp me ob iw an ke no bi

Ciphertext: FY GM KY HO BX MF KK KI MD

Here is the four-square written out again but blanking all of the values that aren't used for encrypting the first digraph "he" into "FY"

- - - - - - - - - -

- - h - - - - - - F

- - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

- - Y - - - - - - e

- - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

- - - - - - - - - -

As can be seen clearly, the method of encryption simply involves finding the other two corners of a rectangle defined by the two letters in the plaintext digraph. The encrypted digraph is simply the letters at the other two corners, with the upper-right letter coming first.

Decryption works the same way, but in reverse. The ciphertext digraph is split with the first character going into the upper-right matrix and the second character going into the lower-left matrix. The other corners of the rectangle are then located. These represent the plaintext digraph with the upper-left matrix component coming first.

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Naval Academy of examination table

Baker was nominated by Congressman Henry W. Barry while he was living in Columbia, and was sworn in as a cadet midshipman on September 25, 1874.

Like his predecessors James H. Conyers and Alonzo C. McClennan the first and second African Americans to attend the Naval Academy, respectively Baker faced racist attitudes and harassment by other midshipmen. Baker was a social outcast, isolated by white cadets; his only social interaction with another midshipman "except on occasions when he was defending himself against their assaults" occurred when a midshipman from Pennsylvania came to Baker's room at midnight and offered Baker a slice of birthday cake. In order to allay Baker's suspicions, the midshipman showed him a letter from his mother "in which she requested that a slice be given to the colored cadet who was without friends".

A fellow plebe from North Carolina, James Henry Glennon, put Baker on report for calling Glennon a "son of a bitch" on October 26, 1874. The Superintendent of the Naval Academy, C.R.P. Rodgers, convened a board of inquiry under Commander William T. Sampson to investigate the incident. Glennon had not heard Baker, but other plebes testified that they had heard it and admitted that they referred to Baker as the "nigger" within his hearing. The board found that Baker had said it, but that he was "incited so to act by the bearing of the other cadets". Another board was convened to investigate a report of disobedience during a seamanship drill, when Baker stood still after receiving conflicting orders, but it found no misconduct.

In January 1875, Baker ran into academic trouble when he failed his semi-annual exams in math and French, and the Academic Board recommended dismissal. While awaiting a final ruling, Baker was involved in another altercation on February 7, 1875. While marching back to quarters after supper, Baker was struck from behind by a snowball. Baker shouted, warning those behind him to "take care at whom you throw snow balls". John Hood, a plebe from Florence, Alabama, asked Baker whom he was addressing, and when Baker replied, "You", Hood struck him in the face. Another midshipman, Lawson Melton of South Carolina (who received his appointment from Robert B. Elliott, a Republican African-American congressman) joined in the attack. Baker escaped and reported the incident. The following morning Hood and Melton, armed with clubs, waylaid Baker and beat him about the head before he could break free and make his escape; he reported this incident to the officer in charge.

In lieu of an investigation, Hood and Melton wrote letters of explanation in which they justified their assault on Baker, with Melton writing:

I have been taught never to receive an insult, and now when it was offered by a Negro, I could not help striking him. I also admit, that it was ungentlemanly, thus to strike a Negro, and I deeply regret having lowered myself thus. I think Sir, that I would repeat it, on the slightest provocation."Superintendent Rogers recommended that the Secretary of the Navy, George M. Robeson, dismiss Hood and Melton for their misconduct and disregard of Baker's rights, as well as their stated intention to renew the violence; Robeson agreed. (Hood was eventually reappointed by Representative Goldsmith W. Hewitt, and graduated second in the Class of 1879.) To forestall additional violence, Rogers punished the freshman with additional marching, extra drills, and restriction to quarters on Saturday evenings; these steps were effective in reducing harassment of Baker.

Baker's studies improved and he passed his annual examinations in June 1875, but the Academic Board recommended that he and twenty other classmates repeat plebe year, and Robeson approved. Around the same time, Baker was attacked after supposedly saying "oh Lord" to Charles Renwick Breck, a classmate from Mississippi, "in a very insulting tone". Breck was dismissed, but Admiral Rogers believed that Baker's defiant attitude was partially to blame. In October 1875, Baker was involved in a mess hall quarrel with Frederick P. Meares, a plebe from North Carolina. Meares objected to Baker removing an empty seat between them and, when it fell beneath the table, classmates pushed the chair into Baker's leg. Baker blamed Meares and warned him that there would be violence if he continued.

Baker was placed on report for using foul language during the altercation. A board of inquiry found that, despite his protestations to the contrary, Baker had called Meares a "God damned son of a bitch", but had been goaded into doing so. Admiral Rogers recommended that Baker be dismissed and Robeson agreed. Political pressure forced Robeson to reverse his decision; however, the harassment resumed after Baker's reinstatement. He resigned permanently. Due to disfranchisement of blacks in the South and the lack of black Congressmen, no other blacks were appointed to the Naval Academy for the following six decades.

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