What Is a Condenser?

In the context of cooling system, when speaking for a condenser, what is on your mind? The following article will discuss on a part that plays an important role in cooling system, a condenser. Its main duty is to cool down refrigerant. It is commonly known as a tool that absorbs the cool vapour sent from the compressor. Condenser is included in cooling systems such as a air conditioning in cars and buildings, and freezers. It helps ventilate the heat of the vapour refrigerant at high temperature and pressure. Its purpose is to condense the heat out while maintaining the same level of pressure. The refrigerant placed in a condenser is in form of vapour and at high temperature because it was heated and pressed at high pressure from the compressor. Once the refrigerant passes through the condenser wall, it changes from original form of vapour to liquid by aid of air and water in order to remove the heal whilst its pressure remains. Condenser is categorised into many types according to the objective of usage. The ventilation of the heat comes in different forms which requires water and electricity to complete the cycle, hence it is important to take this fact into consideration. Types of condensers are Air Cooled Condenser, Water Cooled Condenser, and Evaporative Condenser. Air Cooled Condenser uses air as a main hero to ventilate heat from refrigerant in order to condense the refrigerant. In general, this type of condenser is made from finned copper or iron pipes in order to enlarge the surface that is used for heat ventilation. The air that continue to the condenser will be low, therefore, there is a need to increase the surface of the condenser. Air cooled condenser as the name suggested uses air in relate to the speed of air circulation. The design of air cooled condenser should care for the rate of air circulation at lowest motion possible but with high quality in heat transfer. The speed of air that increased makes the fan works harder. The normal speed of air that is used to ventilate is at 2.5 and 6 metres per second, subject to change. The air cooled condenser is perfect for small refrigeration such as a refrigerator, a cooler, a cold bath which can be further categorised into the followings: Finned-Tube Condenser is widely used and is made from U shaped copper pipes and thin aluminium sheet to increase the capability of the ventilating surface. Flat Tube Condenser is installed behind or underneath the refrigerators so that it can ventilate the heat accordingly. Heat ventilation from refrigerant uses the method of natural air circulation but making the air circulate into the condenser more, which can be divided into two types. Chassis Mounted that is installed with the compressor and a motor where it combined all parts into one unit so called a condensing unit. This type of condenser is suitable for a small cooling system. Its set back is cleanliness as it is on the ground. Air passing through the condenser is not quite clean and may contain dirt and particles and may affect the capability to ventilate. Remote condenser which is installed separately from a compressor. It can be used for both indoor and outdoor in which the wind direction should take into account to designate the location of the condenser. The remote condenser uses a blower to increase the amount of air passing through the surface of the condenser. Its benefits come in terms of shape and size reduction of the condenser. The reduction of heat from refrigerant by using water as the main mechanic to ventilate is to aid the refrigerant to condense. The quality of water and refrigerant that exchange making the temperature of water increases and evaporates. Water will blow vapour into the air which can be divided into two systems. Water that passes through cooling in a condenser will be transferred to waste after using. The importance of this system is to calculate the amount of water in order to specify the correct water speed. It can be calculated by finding the balance between water and energy. The flow of water is approximately at 0.025 litre/second per 1 kW of the capability to refrigeration. It is suitable for a small condenser. Water that passes through a condenser and moving to pipes and a cooling tower to reduce the water temperature can be circulated inside and reuse. The speed of water is approximately at 0.045 and 0.06 litre/second per 1 kW. Once cooling water drops in temperature and pass through a condenser, cooling tower will reduce the water temperature by injecting the water to lower level while the heat is being removed at the same time. The air passes through the cooling tower from the top where the air uses in the cooling tower are natural or by fan. The major variable that matter to the Water Cooled Condenser system is fouling that produced by sedimentation of minerals that come with water. Those sediments will be attached to the pipes' walls and will reduce the capability to transfer heat and will obstruct the flow of cooling water. In general, the producer of condensers will inform location of cleaning and will introduce scale factor which is another indicator of the coefficient of the heat transfer from the water cooled condenser. This type of condenser is a collaboration between water and air in order to reduce the cold from refrigerant. Water is being pumped from the lower storage and sprayed into a condenser before hitting its bottom. Once the refrigerant evaporates and contains qualities of high temperature and high pressure, it attacks sprays and condenses. Whilst the water sprays into a condenser, a fan motor sucks in air from outside to inside from the bottom of the condenser and blows them through a steamer so that they cannot escape out with the air. By which, steam may evaporate when meeting with the heat, making the reduction in water level, and therefore, it is needed to be refilled in order to maintain the water level. A condenser is one of the equipment that does not need regular care, nonetheless, lubricant of a fan bearing and surface of a condenser must be double checked. The surface of a condenser should be clean at all times and should not contain dusts nor dirt because the Water Cooled Condenser may have residues. To prevent bacteria, it is recommended to use specified residue removal and to drain out water before adding new fresh water. Then, pumps the water with the dissolvent so that it can be cleaned as a whole. The right type of condenser is crucial in cooling system because it is a tool to help refrigerant condenses including air ventilation and heat removal from the refrigerant. Moreover, it is important to choose the right condenser that would match the tasks so that it performs at best capabilities. We are more than happy to discuss with you and give some advice in regard to cooling system and condensing units.

1. I was washing my bmw and i was using a high pressure nozzel and the badge came off, how to get another one?

BMW will give you one but it will probably not be anywhere close to free. If you want you could try and get one at the junk yard...But I am not sure how to take them off the old cars and put them back onto yours... It probably looks cool without the emblem anyways.

2. What lamp size do I use for a high pressure sodium bulb?

Beats the hell out of me. At last count there were 35 different HID bulb bases. Some are even two prong, using refractory with a comprable expansion coefficient to the bulb. I dunno. Just look up HID bulbs and see what type you have. The type should be stamped on the base.

3. I put water in my nose, High pressure, Now my ears hurt really bad?

Well it was a bit of a silly thing to do, however you did not know that the consequences would be. It sounds like you have perforated your eardrum which makes a popping sensation and then gives you painful earache. The best thing you can do is ensure no more water goes in, keeping them completely dry. Do not poke anything into you ear cannel as this can make the perforation bigger and stop the wind from getting in (if there is any) by wearing a hat. Then get to your doctor and explain the situation. You may be able to go on antibiotics for a couple of weeks whilst it heals. If the perforation is big you sadly may need an operation. (I have had it) where they cut around you ear and take a graft, then use it to reform the popped eardrum. You are asleep for it but I have to say it can cause ongoing problems like swimming in deep waters and flying on planes as both create pressures which can hurt the ear. If you have perforated you eardrum, even slightly, you wo not be able to fly or swim for 6 months. Sorry to give you the bad news, but believe me, if you do, could could end up partially deaf or worse deaf

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Autonomous Design and Process Optimization of a High Pressure Die Casting Table Base
CASTING FUNCTION AND CHALLENGES A Die Casting Company in Illinois, USA and its global partner were faced with a challenge: to design and build a die cast tool to produce a large die cast aluminum table base.The design of the part was complex in that large bell shapes formed each end of the table, transitioning smoothly to a very slender tubular shape at the casting's center.Structural integrity throughout the casting was of utmost importance in order to meet the functionality of the end product, supporting heavy tabletops, some of which were made of marble.A high gloss coating was applied by heating the casting to a temperature in excess of 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Upon reaching the desired temperature, the casting was quickly submersed and held in a vat of special powder paint until the paint that was in immediate contact with the heated casting liquefied and adhered to it. The casting was then removed from the powder paint vat and cooled in water, solidifying the painted surface.Any porosity close to the surface could propagate blisters during the heating cycle and/or while the casting remained at an elevated temperature in the vat of paint. Due to the nature of the powder paint, it was not economical to strip the castings once blistering has occurred. Therefore prevention of porosity in the casting was of the utmost importance.OBJECTIVES The initial objective was to reduce the air pressure in the casting to prevent porosity. Using this criteria alone, the outcome could be met be increasing the fill time until the air had time to escape. However, this increased time would keep the melt longer in contact to the die surface and cold runs could appear; as the cold material does not weld together, the structural integrity of the casting would not be achieved. To prevent this, the minimum melt temperature had to remain above the solidus temperature at the end of fill, indicating that two parameters had to be considered as part of the casting process.PROCESS DESIGN LIMITATIONS In designing this casting process, two main objectives have to be defined:A: Layout of the mold as position of the casting, runner system, overflows / vents and cooling system B: Process parameter used to fill the cavity and cool the casting The inherently complex and interactive nature of die casting has demonstrated that changing just one of the objectives will influence the complete casting process design. For example, by adding or deleting an overflow, the volume of metal will change, the amount of heat introduced into the die will change, the plunger position to accelerate from the slow into the fast shot will vary as will the filling pattern in the cavity.In the most cases, the engineer defines the process parameter first. He knows the casting volume and estimates a filling time based on the casting dimensions, necessary melt temperature at the beginning and end of the cavity filling and mold temperature. Similarly, he knows the size of the available die casting machine, plunger diameter and pressures for the shot curve and pouring volumes. As these process parameters will be a constant, the designer can use a computer simulation to help in designing the remaining components,, including balancing the runner system, placing overflows and temperature control systems.Once the die is built, the process becomes "written in stone". The success of the project falls upon the engineer's shoulders to ensure that the optimum casting is created from the beginning, so that the die will produce good castings direct from start of production. The reality, however, is that to create a good die the first time out requires a high involvement of the process engineer in the process development. Multiple designs have to be simulated, results evaluated, influencing process parameters determined, and the changes simulated again. While all of the steps require time, identifying and understanding the effects of the influencing parameters - and the resultant effect of each change to those parameters - can be extremely challenging and time-consuming, even with simulation software.With state of the art software and their simulation capabilities limitations can be significantly reduced. Using one set up, hundreds of designs can be evaluated, weighted, changed and optimized without human interferences. The result is an optimized mold layout and a corresponding process parameter tolerance band.THE OPTIMIZATION PROCESS Based on a given casting design, position and runner system changes can be made to the overflow positions, runner extensions and process parameter. The design combination possible are two for the side overflows (smaller or wider), four for runner extensions (left, right, both, non) and four different positions for the overflows. Process parameter combination are three slow shot velocities, five transition positions into the fast shot, two accelerations and five different fast shot speeds.All together, there are 4800 possible combination than can be considered as potential optimized designs. Historically, the simulation time was 75 minutes, per design, on a standard workstation. If all of the possible designs had been simulated, the process would have taken 250 days. In today's fast pace environment, this amount of time is not available.The automatic optimization software is developed to find an optimum by selection and improvement. To begin the optimization, 20 sequences were randomized and selected to build the first generation. Based on the results the next generation of 20 sequences was built. The target was a total of 25 generations or 500 simulations.SIMULATION RESULTS Results can be listed based on the simulated design sequences or as a scatter chart based on the selected objectives. In our example, the selected objectives were maximum air pressure and minimum melt temperature.An examination of the optimization results for the table base design indicated that the 5 best designs for the lowest air pressure still had a melt temperature above the liquidus. For these five designs, neither the size of the selected overflows nor the added ingates were important, but the overflow in the casting middle section had to be in a precise location.The results also indicated that neither the plunger velocity during slow shot nor the acceleration into fast shot were as important as the earlier start of the fast shot. The tendency is a location at the middle of the runner. The fast shot speed itself is the same for all selected designs without any variation and it is clearly an important process parameter to keep in a tide tolerance.Comparison of fast shot velocity to entrapped air confirmed that the faster the velocity, the less time is available to evacuate the cavity, and more air will be entrapped. Options available to the engineer include increasing vent area or the use of vacuum.The results also indicate that to extend the runner on one side or both does not influence the air entrapment or melt temperature significant. The recommendation in this case would be, do not extend the runner system and save some re-melt material.The die layout and process parameter selection at this point would be to keep the overflow layout and add some more venting, do not extend the runner system and keep control on the transition point and plunger velocity of the fast shot as important process parameters.The simulation set up for all these designs is unquestionable longer than for a single simulation, but not significantly so. What will take longer, however, is the length of time needed to run a simulation that is considering 500 designs. It mist be remembered, however, that the evaluation of the 500 designs will be done without the intervention of the engineer, as opposed to the time needed for the engineer to evaluate the results of a single, traditional simulation, make changes, rerun the simulation and compare the results with the ones from before. Similarly, production process tolerances can be implemented and checked frequently and only the results showing areas of greatest interest have to be evaluated by the process team. In our case, a minimum of effort had allowed for multiple simulations to be performed, and yielded results where critical values could be found very easily and adjusted so that the die cast would produce the desired table base.Additional fine-tuning of the design can be performed by shifting the parameter to smaller tolerances and create another design of experiences to further optimize the design. Based on the process knowledge derived from the first optimization program, and thereby already having determined which parameters to change or keep constant, the rerun would need just a couple of dozen iterations.The result is a design that can reach the production floor faster and more efficiently, reducing costs and increasing customer satisfaction.
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