Why There Is a Need to Have a Continual Flow of Water in the Condenser During Distillation?

The water is probably cooler than the air and probably cooler than the substances being distilled. The idea is when the vapor of each distillate rises it will hit the area of the column with the water flow and cool and condense and is now more easily collected. But this also depends on your particular setup of distillation column.

1. In distillation column design, is the number of stages equal to the number of plates/trays?

You can use any method to find the number of theoretical stages /plates/trays like mccabe and thiele , Underwood etc...When you find the number of theoretical stages by using above method it assume that your tray efficiency is equal to 100%.So if you would like to find actual number of stages then devide number of theoretical stages by tray efficiency.So,Actual number of stages=Number of theoretical stages/efficiency of trayExample:-If number of theoretical stages as per McCabe and thiele method is 10 and efficiency of tray is 0. 5 then actual number of stages is????Actual number of stages= 10/0.5Actual numbet of stages=20.I think you got your answerThank you...-Ravi KasundraIn distillation column design, is the number of stages equal to the number of plates/trays?

2. Explain/Describe the process of Fractional Distillation in Crude Oil?

For me, you can ask Lerynne Angela Biton, a scientist very good in this topic. She mastered mannalon dayta! Mweehehe. Agpaysu la

3. give me three examples of distillation?

Distillation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate 14: Heating (Oil/sand) bath 15: Stiring means e.g. magnetic follower (shown), anti-bumping granules or mechanical stirrer 16: Cooling bath.Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation. Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from sea water. Air is distilled to separate its components - notably oxygen, nitrogen and argon - for industrial use. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content. Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Applications of distillation 3 Idealized distillation model 3.1 Batch distillation 3.2 Continuous distillation 3.3 General improvements 4 Laboratory scale distillation 4.1 Simple distillation 4.2 Fractional distillation 4.3 Steam distillation 4.4 Vacuum distillation 4.5 Air-sensitive vacuum distillation 4.6 Short path distillation 4.7 Other types 5 Azeotropic distillation 5.1 Breaking an azeotrope with unidirectional pressure manipulation 5.2 Pressure-swing Distillation 6 Industrial distillation 7 Distillation in food processing 7.1 Distilled beverages 8 References 9 External links 10 Gallery [edit] History Early forms of distillation were known to Babylonian alchemists in Mesopotamia (in what is now Iraq) from at least the 2nd millennium BC. Distillation was later known to Greek alchemists from the 1st century AD, and the later development of large-scale distillation apparatus occurred in response to demands for spirits. Hypathia of Alexandria is credited with having invented an early distillation apparatus, and the first exact description of apparatus for distillation is given by Zosimos of Alexandria in the fourth century. Distillation by retort using the alembic.In the 8th century, alchemists in the Middle East produced distillation processes to purify chemical substances for industrial purposes such as isolating natural esters (perfumes) and producing pure alcohol. The first among them was the Persian Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber) circa 800 AD, who is credited with the invention of numerous chemical apparatus and processes that are still in use today. In particular, his alembic was the first still with retorts which could fully purify chemicals, a precursor to the pot still, and its design has served as inspiration for modern micro-scale distillation apparatus such as the Hickman stillhead. Petroleum was first distilled by another Persian, al-Razi (Rhazes) in the 9th century, for producing kerosene, while steam distillation was invented by Avicenna in the early 11th century, for producing essential oils. In 1500, German alchemist Hieronymus Braunschweig published Liber de arte destillandi (The Book of the Art of Distillation) the first book on the subject, followed in 1512 by a much expanded version. In 1651, John French published The Art of Distillation the first major English compendium of practice, though it has been claimed that much of it derives from Braunschweig's work. This includes diagrams with people in them showing the industrial rather than bench scale of the operation. As alchemy evolved into the science of chemistry, vessels called retorts became used for distillations. Both alembics and retorts are forms of glassware with long necks pointing to the side at a downward angle which acted as air-cooled condensers to condense the distillate and let it drip downward for collection. Later, copper alembics were invented. Riveted joints were often kept tight by using various mixtures, for instance a dough made of rye flour. These alembics often featured a cooling system around the beak, using cold water for instance, which made the condensation of alcohol more efficient. These were called pot stills. Today, the retorts and pot stills have been largely supplanted by more efficient distillation methods in most industrial processes. However, the pot still is still widely used for the elaboration of some fine alcohols such as cognac, Scotch whisky and some vodkas. Pot stills made of various materials (wood, clay, stainless steel) are also used by bootleggers in various countries. Small pot stills are also sold for the domestic production of flower water or essential oils. In the early 19th century the basics of modern techniques including pre-heating and reflux were developed, particularly by the French, then in 1830 a British Patent was issued to Aeneas Coffey for a whiskey distillation column, which worked continuously and may be regarded as the archetype of modern petrochemical units. In 1877, Ernest Solvay was granted a U.S. Patent for a tray column for ammonia distillation and the same and subsequent years saw developments of this theme for oil and spirits. With the emergence of chemical engineering as a discipline at the end of the 19th century, scientific rather than empirical methods could be applied. The developing petroleum industry in the early 20th century provided the impetus for the development of accurate design methods such as the McCabe-Thiele method and the Fenske equation. [edit] Applications of distillation The application of distillation can roughly be divided in four groups: laboratory scale, industrial distillation, distillation of herbs for perfumery and medicinals (herbal distillate) and food processing. The latter two are distinct from the former two, in that in the distillation is not used as a true purification method, but more to transfer all volatiles from the source materials to the distillate. The main difference between laboratory scale distillation and industrial distillation is that laboratory scale distillation is often performed batch-wise, whereas industrial distillation often occurs continuously. In batch distillation, the composition of the source material, the vapors of the distilling compounds and the distillate change during the distillation. In batch distillation, a still is charged (supplied) with a batch of feed mixture, which is then separated into its component fractions which are collected sequentially from most volatile to less volatile, with the bottoms (remaining least or non-volatile fraction) removed at the end. The still can then be recharged and the process repeated. In continuous distillation, the source materials, vapors and distillate are kept at a constant composition by carefully replenishing the source material and removing fractions from both vapor and liquid in the system. This results in a better control of the separation process. [edit] Idealized distillation model The boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid. The normal boiling point of a liquid is the special case at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the ambient atmospheric pressure. A liquid in a container at a pressure below atmospheric pressure will boil at temperature lower than the normal boiling point, and a liquid in a container at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure will boil at a temperature higher than the normal boiling point. In other words, all liquids have an infinite number of boiling points. It is a common misconception that in a liquid mixture at a given pressure, each component boils at the boiling point corresponding to the given pressure and the vapors of each component will collect separately and purely. This, however, does not occur even in an idealized system. Idealized models of distillation are essentially governed by Raoult's law and Dalton's law. Raoult's law assumes that a component contributes to the total vapor pressure of the mixture in proportion to its percentage of the mixture and its vapor pressure when pure. If one component changes another component's vapor pressure, or if the volatility of a component is dependent on its percentage in the mixture, the law will fail. Dalton's law states that the total vapor pressure is the sum of the vapor pressures of each individual component in the mixture. When a multi-component liquid is heated, the vapor pressure of each component will rise, thus causing the total vapor pressure to rise. When the total vapor pressure reaches the pressure surrounding the liquid, boiling occurs and liquid turns to gas throughout the bulk of the liquid. Note that a given mixture has one boiling point at a given pressure, when the components are mutually soluble. The idealized model is accurate in the case of chemically similar liquids, such as benzene and toluene. In other cases, severe deviations from Raoult's law and Dalton's law are observed, most famously in the mixture of ethanol and water. These compounds, when heated together, form an azeotrope, in which the boiling temperature of the mixture is lower than the boiling temperature of each separate liquid. Virtually all liquids, when mixed and heated, will display azeotropic behaviour. Although there are computational methods that can be used to estimate the behavior of a mixture of arbitrary components, the only way to obtain accurate vapor-liquid equilibrium data is by measurement. It is not possible to completely pur

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What Are the Differences Between a Radiator and a Spiral Condenser? Can a Radiator Be Used to Cool a
In principle, yes, you could use a radiator in place of a sprial condenser. Both of these are simply heat exchangers with different cooling media - for one, a liquid, probably water, and for another, the air. In practice, air cooling as an alternative to most types of liquid cooled heat exchangers is workable but is more expensive and more inconvenient in most types of situations. Despite its name, a radiator for most types distillation will not be giving off significant amounts radiant heat; more likely it will be cooled by the movement of air over the coils, pipes, or whatever you happen to be using as a radiator - in other words, by convection. So the temperature of the ambient air matters. A rule of thumb often used in design of air coolers is that you want at least 15 degrees Fahrenheit of delta T (that is, temperature difference) between the outlet of your air cooler (what comes out) and the air. But wait - this ambient air will also heat up quickly, making the effective temperature difference lower. The easiest way to solve this is by passing air over your air cooling surface to make the effective coolant temperature always equal to the ambient air temperature, which is why most industrial implementations of air coolers have fans that drive air over them. Fans can either be placed so that they draw air from the area of the air cooler (induced draught) or so that they push air over the area of the cooler (forced draught). It's also often advantageous to angle the radiator relative to the fan so that condensate can return by gravity flow. I've attached the picture of an air condenser below from the GPSA Engineering Data Book, 12 ed., which I hope I have degraded enough to avoid being eaten by the copyright monster. nThis principle can be most obviously observed at work in old-style cars with an unshielded radiator in front, air-cooled: the car's cooling is aided by the air impinging on the radiator tubes while are moving at speed.You also have to make sure that your radiator has enough surface area for the heat transfer to occur. There are entire textbooks and engineering manuals written on the subject of heat transfer of this type (I own a few - the GPSA Engineering Data Book is the best non-specialist engineering reference for this, in my humble opinion), but suffice to say that the rate of convective heat transfer from air will in practice never be nearly equal the rate of convective heat transfer from a comparable surface area exposed to water or other liquid coolant. In fact, the difference will likely be one or two orders of magnitude.As such, you will have to make sure that:nWhatever you happen to be condensing will at least be doing so at the temperature of ambient air - i.e., the "cold" outlet of your radiator will have about 15 or more degrees fahrenheit of temperature difference between it and the air (and yes, this temperature difference should end up with the air colder than the condensate)The radiator has enough surface area so that it can effectively exchange heat with the airIf you find that there is not enough performance, you should probably blow air over it, and if that is not enough, you probably need a bigger radiatorIf you do not have a bigger radiator, you should try decreasing the flow of the thing you want to cool to allow a greater amount of heat transfer to occurnAnd since you appear to be working in a laboratory environment, I will add the following:n 5. You have sufficient airflow to justify heating up a lot of air in your labWhat are the differences between a radiator and a spiral condenser? Can a radiator be used to cool a liquid during distillation instead of a condenser? Please give reasons for your answer1. Cracking of dicyclopentadiene - was my simple Liebig condenser distillation setup adequate?I agree the setup is a bit much. The way I viewed the above diagram the receiving flask is on the left, hence the Friedrich's condenser is used to rapidly condense the hot, cracked cyclopentadiene rapidly. As such it gets the cold water, and the other condenser gets the hot water to help the reflux. Its a good idea to keep it cold at this point since low temp slows the dimerization. When Ive done it in the past I've had my setup under flowing N2 to keep it dry, but the drying tube could work depending on how pure you need it. Also I would freeze the collected cyclopentadiene during collection and storage. Things typically react slower in the solid phase. J. Chem. Educ. , 1987, 64 (10), p 898.2. how has distillation impacted the world?look, get a sparkling GF! this is obtrusive, somebody that truly cares approximately you will inspire your hobby. we choose you! era! the international desires stable passionate engineers. i might proceed to seek for brand spanking new opportunities on your container. Take some negative aspects including your inventing, you in no way comprehend what you will arise with. seek for companies that attempt to have the extra suitable stable of their corporation plan, yet comprehend that often human beings might desire to compromise with a view to help a lot of human beings. so a procedures as being one guy or woman, no longer many, to help the international, It basically takes one guy or woman to invent something marvelous to help the full international. area of your job ought to be networking, chatting with human beings on your container approximately your hobby and chatting with people who are in positions of helping others. seek for the stable Samaritans of the international and talk with them. If choose you lots success on your undertaking.3. what are the uses of fractional distillation?through fact crude oil includes many diverse hydrocarbons, each and every having its own boiling component. in case you be attentive to that a mix includes compounds having diverse boiling component, the suited thank you to chop up them is via distillation
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